Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease that affects the large intestine. Signs and symptoms include cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, gas, and diarrhea or constipation, or both. IBS is a chronic condition that you’ll want to handle long term.
Just a small number of people with IBS have severe signs and symptoms. Some people can control their symptoms by handling diet, lifestyle, and stress.
IBS doesn’t cause changes in bowel tissue or increase your risk of colorectal cancer.
Symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome:
The signs and symptoms of IBS vary but are usually present for quite a long time. The most common include:
- Abdominal pain, bloating, or cramping that is related to passing a bowel motion.
- Changes in the appearance of bowel movement.
- Changes how often you are having a bowel motion.
Other symptoms that are frequently related include bloating, increased gas or mucus in the feces.
Watch your doctor when you have a persistent change in bowel habits or other signs or symptoms of IBS. They might indicate a serious illness, such as colon cancer.
- Weight loss
- Diarrhea at nighttime
- Rectal bleeding
- Iron deficiency anemia
- Unexplained vomiting
- Persistent pain which is not relieved by passing gas or a bowel movement.
Causes of irritable bowel syndrome:
The exact cause of IBS is not known. Factors that appear to play a role include:
Muscle contractions in the intestine:
The walls of the intestines are lined with layers of muscle that contract because they move food through your digestive tract.
Contractions that are more powerful and last longer than ordinary can cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea. Irregular intestinal contractions can slow food passing and lead to hard, dry stools.
Abnormalities from the nerves in your digestive system might cause you to experience larger than normal discomfort as soon as your abdomen stretches from gas or feces.
Poorly coordinated signals between the brain and the intestines can cause the human body to overreact to changes that normally occur in the digestive process, leading to pain, diarrhea, or constipation.
IBS can develop after a serious bout of diarrhea (gastroenteritis) caused by bacteria or a virus. IBS is also associated with an excess of bacteria in the intestines (bacterial vaginosis ).
Early life stress:
People exposed to stressful occasions, especially in youth, tend to have more symptoms of IBS.
Changes in gut microbes:
Examples include changes in bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which typically live in the intestines and play a key role in health. Research suggests that the microbes in people with IBS may differ from those in healthy people.
Triggers of irritable bowel syndrome:
Symptoms of IBS can be triggered by:
Food: The role of food allergy or intolerance in IBS is not fully known. A true food allergy rarely causes IBS. But many people have worse IBS symptoms when they drink or eat certain foods or drinks, including wheat, dairy products, citrus fruits, legumes, cabbage, milk, and carbonated beverages.
Stress: Most people with IBS experience worse or more frequent signs and symptoms during periods of increased stress. But while, Stress may worsen symptoms, it does not cause them.
Risk factors of irritable bowel syndrome:
Many people have occasional signs and symptoms of IBS. But you’re more likely to get the syndrome for those who:
Are young: IBS occurs more frequently in people under age 50.
Are female: In the USA, IBS is more prevalent among women. Estrogen therapy before or after menopause also is a risk factor for IBS.
Genes may play a role, as can share factors in a household’s environment or a combination of genes and environment.
Have stress: Depression, or other emotional health problems. A history of sexual, physical, or psychological abuse also could be a risk element.
Persistent constipation or diarrhea can cause hemorrhoids.
Irritable bowel syndrome complications:
Besides, IBS is associated with:
Poor quality of life: Many people with moderate to severe IBS report inferior quality of existence. Research suggests that people with IBS miss twice as many days from work as do people with no bowel symptoms.
Mood disorders: Eliminating the signs and symptoms of IBS can lead to depression or anxiety. Depression and anxiety also can make IBS worse.
Diagnosis irritable bowel syndrome:
There is no test to definitively diagnose IBS. Your doctor is likely to begin with a complete medical history, physical exam, and tests to rule out other conditions, such as celiac disease.
After other conditions have been ruled out, your doctor is likely to use these sets of diagnostic criteria for IBS:
Rome criteria: These criteria include abdominal pain and discomfort lasting on average at least one day a week in the previous 3 months, related to two of these factors: Pain and discomfort.
Type of IBS: For therapy, IBS can be broken up into three types, based on your symptoms: constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant or mixed.
Your doctor will also likely assess whether you have other signs or symptoms that might suggest another, more serious, illness.
These signs and symptoms include:
- The Onset of signs and symptoms after age 50
- Weight loss
- Rectal bleeding
- Fever, Nausea
- Recurrent vomiting
- Abdominal pain, especially if it is not related to a bowel motion, or happens at night
- Diarrhea that is persistent or awakens you from sleep
- Anemia related to low iron
If you’ve got any signs or symptoms, or in an initial treatment for IBS doesn’t work, you will likely need additional tests.
Additional tests of IBS:
Your doctor may recommend several tests, including stool studies to test for infection or problems with your intestine’s ability to take in the nutrients from food (malabsorption).
You may also have other tests to rule out other causes for your symptoms.
Diagnostic procedures can include:
Colonoscopy: Your doctor uses a small, flexible tube to examine the entire length of the colon.
X-ray or CT scan: These tests create images of your abdomen and pelvis that might enable your doctor to rule out other causes of your symptoms, particularly if you have abdominal pain.
Your doctor might fill your large intestine using a liquid (barium) to create any problems much more visible on X-ray.
Upper endoscopy A long, flexible tube is inserted down your throat and to the tube linking your mouth and stomach (stomach ).
A cam on the end of the tube allows the doctor to inspect the upper gastrointestinal tract and obtain a tissue sample (biopsy) from the small intestine and fluid to search for an overgrowth of bacteria.
Laboratory tests can include:
Lactose intolerance tests: Lactose intolerance tests: Lactase is an enzyme that you need to digest the sugar found in dairy products. If you don’t create flaxseed, you might have problems like those due to IBS, including abdominal pain, gas, and nausea.
Your doctor may purchase a breath test or request that you remove milk and milk products from your diet for many weeks.
Breath test for bacterial overgrowth: A breath test also can ascertain if you’ve got bacterial overgrowth on your small intestine.
Bacterial overgrowth is more common among those who have had bowel surgery or who have diabetes or some other disorder that slows down digestion.
Stool tests: Your feces might be analyzed for parasites or bacteria, or a digestive liquid produced on your liver (bile acid) in case you’ve got chronic diarrhea.
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