Overview Information About Melatonin:
Melatonin used as a medication is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It’s most commonly available in pill form, but it can also be available in forms that can be set on the cheek or under the tongue.
This permits the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.
Many people take melatonin by mouth to adjust the body’s internal clock. It is most commonly used for sleeplessness and improving sleep in various conditions.
By way of instance, it’s used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work program changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping people establish a day and night cycle.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19):
There is not any good evidence to support melatonin for COVID-19. Follow wholesome lifestyle choices and proven prevention methods instead.
How does it function?
Melatonin’s main task in the body would be to modulate night and day cycles or sleep-wake cycles.
Darkness causes the body to produce more melatonin, which signals the body to prepare for sleep. Light reduces melatonin production and signals the body to prepare to be alert.
Some people who have difficulty sleeping have low levels of melatonin. It’s believed that adding melatonin out of supplements might help them sleep.
Uses & Effectiveness of Melatonin?
Likely Powerful for:
- Trouble falling asleep at a traditional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome). Taking melatonin by mouth appears to reduce the time required to fall asleep in young adults and children who have difficulty falling asleep.
However, within a year of stopping therapy, this sleeping problem seems to come back.
- Non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder. Taking it at bedtime seems to improve sleep in kids and adults that are blind.
Possibly Effective for:
Sleep disturbance due to certain blood pressure medicine (beta blocker-induced insomnia ):
Beta-blocker medications, such as atenolol and propranolol, are a class of drugs that appear to lower melatonin levels.
This might cause difficulties sleeping. Research shows that taking a melatonin supplement might reduce problems sleeping in patients carrying beta-blocker drugs.
High doses of melatonin, managed by a health care professional along with chemotherapy or other cancer treatments, might reduce tumor size and improve survival rates in some people with cancer.
A painful uterine disorder (endometriosis):
Taking melatonin daily for 2 weeks seems to reduce pain and painkiller use in women with endometriosis.
Additionally, it reduces pain during menstruation, intercourse, and while going to the bathroom.
High blood pressure:
Taking the controlled-release type of melatonin before bedtime seems to reduce blood pressure in people with elevated blood pressure.
Immediate-release formulations do not seem to work.
Taking melatonin short term seems to shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep in people with insomnia, but only by about 7-12 minutes.
Melatonin might also raise the amount of time that a person who has insomnia spends sleeping. But results are contradictory, and any advantage is modest at best.
Some people say melatonin makes them sleep better, even though tests do not agree. There’s some evidence that melatonin is more inclined to help older people than younger people or children.
This might be because older people have less melatonin in their bodies, to begin with. Research shows that melatonin might improve sleeping trouble linked to conditions like depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism, developmental disabilities, and intellectual disabilities.
Most research shows that melatonin may improve certain signs of jet lag such as endurance and movement coordination.
Melatonin also seems to slightly improve additional jet lag symptoms like daytime sleepiness and tiredness. But, sometimes it might not be effective for shortening the time it takes for people with jet lag to drop asleep.
Most evidence shows that taking melatonin before bed can stop Migraines in adults and children. When headaches do happen, they’re milder and pass faster.
It is not clear if melatonin helps to deal with migraines.
Anxiety before surgery:
Melatonin used beneath the tongue seems to be rather effective at reducing stress before the operation as midazolam, a traditional medication.
Additionally, it seems to have fewer unwanted side effects in some people. Taking melatonin by mouth also seems to reduce stress before surgery, though a few conflicting pieces of evidence exist.
Furthermore, some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before sevoflurane anesthesia reduces stiffness after an operation.
Implementing melatonin gel into your skin before sun exposure seems to reduce sunburn. Implementing melatonin cream to the skin before sun exposure seems to assist people which are extremely sensitive to the sun.
But melatonin cream might not prevent sunburn in people with less sensitive skin.
- A group of painful conditions that affect the jaw muscle and joint (temporomandibular disorders or TMD). Research indicates that taking melatonin at bedtime for 4 weeks reduces pain by 44% and increases tolerance to pain by 39 percent in women with jaw soreness.
- Low levels of platelets in the blood (thrombocytopenia). Taking melatonin by mouth can improve low blood platelet counts related to cancer, cancer treatment, and other disorders.
Possibly Ineffective for:
- Athletic performance. Taking melatonin soon before resistance exercise or biking doesn’t seem to improve performance.
- Involuntary weight loss in people that are extremely sick (cachexia or wasting syndrome). Research shows that taking melatonin each evening for 28 days does not improve appetite, body weight, or body composition in people with wasting syndrome.
- Diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, that interfere with believing (dementia). Most research shows that taking melatonin does not improve behavior or influence symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease or other types of memory loss.
However, taking malatonin might reduce guilt and confusion once the sun goes down in people with those ailments.
- Inability to become pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (infertility). Taking melatonin does not appear to improve pregnancy rates in women undergoing fertility treatments.
- Sleep disorder because of rotating or night shifts (shift work disorder). Taking melatonin by mouth doesn’t seem to improve sleeping problems in people who do shift work.
Likely Ineffective for:
- Withdrawal from drugs known as benzodiazepines. Many people take benzodiazepines for sleep issues. Long-term use may result in dependence. Taking melatonin at bedtime does not help people stop taking these medications.
- Depression. Although melatonin might improve sleeping problems in people with depression, it does not seem to improve depression itself.
There is also some concern that meltonin might worsen symptoms in some people. It’s not clear if taking melatonin may avert depression.
Insufficient Evidence for:
- An eye disorder that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Early research shows that taking melatonin might delay the loss of eyesight in people with cerebral vision loss.
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Early research shows that melatonin can reduce the signs of eczema in children.
However, although melatonin improves sleep quality it does not always shorten the time it takes for these children to fall asleep.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited research shows that melatonin might reduce insomnia in children with ADHD who are taking stimulants.
But improved sleep doesn’t appear to reduce symptoms of ADHD.
- Autism. Early research shows that taking melatonin can improve aggression or impulsiveness in kids with autism.
But taking melatonin does not appear to improve other behaviors.
- Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia or BPH). Taking metalonin may reduce excess urination during the night in certain men with an enlarged prostate.
But it is not clear if this improvement is clinically significant.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research shows that taking melatonin during pregnancy increases sleep length and reduces manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who also have insomnia.
But there are also concerns that taking melatonin might make symptoms worse in some people with bipolar disorder.
- Tiredness in people with cancer. Taking melatonin short-term does not appear to improve fatigue or quality of life in people with cancer.
It’s uncertain if it would be beneficial if used for a longer time.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Some early research shows that taking melatonin in the evening might improve some symptoms of CFS, including tiredness, concentration, and motivation.
However, other early research shows that taking it by mouth doesn’t improve CFS symptoms:
- A lung disease that makes it more difficult to breathe (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD). Taking melatonin improves shortness of breath in people with COPD. But, it doesn’t seem to improve lung function or exercise capacity.
- Cluster headache. Taking 10 mg by mouth daily might reduce the frequency of cluster headaches. However, lower doses don’t appear to work.
- A psychological condition in which a person is confused and unable to think clearly. Early research shows that taking it nightly for 14 times reduces the risk of delirium in elderly people.
- Diabetes. While some research shows that it might reduce levels of blood sugar, it isn’t known if that is helpful for patients with diabetes.
- Dry mouth. Taking melatonin by mouth and using melatonin as a mouth rinse does not stop dry mouth in people with head and neck cancer being treated with cancer radiation and drugs.
But it might delay the start of symptoms.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking it every day might reduce indigestion in some people. However, it doesn’t seem to function as well in people with prior H. pylori disease.
- Side effects in people who have a breathing tube. Taking this might reduce some side effects from using a breathing tube.
- Seizure disorder (epilepsy). There is some evidence that taking melatonin at bedtime may reduce the quantity and length of seizures in children with epilepsy.
But greater quality research is required to confirm:
- Fibromyalgia. Melatonin might reduce the intensity of pain and stiffness in people with fibromyalgia.
- Persistent heartburn. Taking melatonin every day during pregnancy might improve symptoms of acid reflux, such as eczema. But, taking conventional medication seems to be more effective.
- A digestive tract infection may result in ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Evidence shows that taking melatonin along with the drug omeprazole improves healing in people with ulcers caused by H. pylori infection.
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines which causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Early research shows that taking this might improve some, but not all, symptoms of IBS.
Some research shows that melatonin functions better in people with IBS in which constipation is the principal symptom:
- Kidney transplant. Early research shows that taking melatonin does not improve how well the kidney functions following a kidney transplant.
- Symptoms of menopause. Limited research shows that melatonin doesn’t alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, taking melatonin in conjunction with soy isoflavones might help psychological symptoms related to menopause.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Early research shows that taking melatonin reduces blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). Early research shows that taking melatonin doesn’t improve MS symptoms such as fatigue and disability.
- Heart attack. Early research shows that melatonin injected directly into the vein within 2.5 hours after a heart attack, might reduce damage to the center.
- Brain damage in infants caused by lack of oxygen. Early research shows that giving melatonin in addition to cooling-therapy might improve results in infants with brain damage caused by lack of oxygen.
- Injury to the brain, spine, or nerves (neurological injury ). Early research shows that taking melatonin doesn’t improve symptoms in children that have experienced a concussion.
- Bed-wetting. Early research shows that taking melatonin before bed doesn’t change how frequently children wet their beds at night.
- The build-up of fat in the liver in people who consume little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Some evidence shows that taking melaton improves markers of liver function in people with NAFLD. However, not all research agrees.
- Swelling (inflammation) and build-up of fat from the liver in people who consume little if any alcohol (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or NASH). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin improves markers of liver function in the blood of people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
- Swelling (inflammation) and sores in the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking it by mouth and using melatonin as a mouth rinse appears to delay mouth blisters from forming people getting cancer radiation and drugs.
But it might not reduce the amount of these people who get mouth ulcers.
- Low bone mass (osteopenia). Early research in women with reduced bone mass after menopause indicates that taking melatonin slightly increases bone thickness at the spine and shin but not in other locations.
- Chronic pain. Limited research indicates that taking it might improve unique types of chronic pain by a tiny amount.
- A hormonal disorder that leads to enlarged ovaries with cysts (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS). It improves irregular menstruation in women with PCOS. Taking melatonin seems to increase the number of menstrual cycles over 6 months from 2.5 to 4.
- Pain after the operation. Some research shows that taking melatonin for two days and continuing for up to 3 weeks when undergoing surgery might reduce pain and use of pain medicine.
- Recovery after surgery. Some evidence shows that taking melatonin the night before and one hour before undergoing surgery might reduce pain and drug use after surgery.
- Changes in heart rate if you proceed from laying down to sitting up (postural tachycardia syndrome). Early research shows that taking a single dose of melatonin reduces heart rate if you switch from sitting to standing.
But it doesn’t seem to influence blood pressure or other symptoms.
- A maternity complication marked by elevated blood pressure and protein in the urine (pre-eclampsia). Taking melatonin with vitamin B6 might occasionally reduce the demand for blood pressure medications. However, it does not seem to improve pre-eclampsia overall.
- Prostate cancer. Taking melatonin by mouth jointly with conventional medications might reduce the growth of prostate cancer.
- Skin damage brought on by radiation therapy (radiation dermatitis). In women with breast cancer, employing a particular melatonin emulsion lotion to the skin during radiation therapy appears to reduce radiation dermatitis.
- A sleeping disorder where people act out fantasies while sleeping. Some evidence shows that taking melatonin before bed reduces muscle movement during sleep in people who have a sleep disorder that involves acting out fantasies.
- A disorder that leads to leg distress and an irresistible desire to move the legs (restless legs syndrome or RLS). Early research shows that taking melatonin before bedtime might make symptoms worse in people with restless legs syndrome.
- A disease that causes swelling (inflammation) in human anatomy organs, usually the lungs or lymph nodes (sarcoidosis). Early evidence shows that taking per day for one year followed by a reduced dose for another year improves lung function and skin problems for people with an inflammatory illness called sarcoidosis.
- Schizophrenia. There is conflicting evidence concerning the effects of melatonin on schizophrenia symptoms and side effects associated with drugs.
Some research shows that taking melatonin by mouth for 2 months reduces weight gain associated with the usage of the drug olanzapine and improves symptoms of schizophrenia.
But other research shows that it:
- Seasonal depression (seasonal affective disorder or SAD). Some early research shows that taking by mouth might reduce depression throughout winter in people with SAD.
But giving melatonin under the tongue doesn’t seem to improve symptoms.
- Quitting smoking. Taking melatonin 3.5 hours after stopping smoking seems to reduce stress, restlessness, and cigarette cravings.
- Blood infection (sepsis). There is conflicting research about the effect of melatonin on sepsis in neonates. Though some early research shows that giving melatonin in addition to antibiotics improves the severity of bloodstream disease, other research shows that melatonin has no effect.
- Stress. There’s some evidence that taking melatonin might improve memory while under pressure.
- A motion disorder often brought on by antipsychotic drugs (tardive dyskinesia). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin by mouth decreases symptoms of a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia.
But, other evidence shows that taking melatonin daily doesn’t reduce involuntary motions in those patients.
- Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Some evidence shows that taking melatonin at night reduces ringing in the ears also improves sleep quality. However, other research shows that it doesn’t reduce ear ringing.
- A kind of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking melatonin daily together with conventional medication seems to help restrain a type of inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis.
- Birth control.
- Problems with mental function.
- Additional conditions.
More evidence is needed to speed melatonin for those uses.
Safety & Side Effects of Melatonin:
Once taken by mouth: Melatonin is likely safe for most adults when taken by mouth temporarily. It is possibly safe when taken by mouth suitably, long-term.
It has been used safely for up to 2 years in some individuals. But, it can cause some side effects such as headache, short-term feelings of depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, and irritability.
Don’t drive or use machines for a few hours after taking melatonin.
When applied to the skin: Melatonin is likely safe for many adults when applied directly to skin short term.
When given by IV: Melatonin is possibly safe when injected directly into the body under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Precautions & Warnings Of Melatonin:
Pregnancy: It is possibly unsafe for women when taken orally or injected into your system often or in substantial doses when trying to become pregnant.
It can have effects similar to birth control. This might make it more difficult to become pregnant. There is not enough reliable information to understand if it is safe in lower doses when trying to become pregnant.
Some evidence suggests that low doses (2-3 mg daily) might be safe, but further research is required to confirm.
Not enough is known about the safety of melatonin when used while pregnant. Until more is known, it is best not to use melatonin while pregnant or attempting to become pregnant.
Breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breastfeeding. It is best not to use it.
Children: Melatonin is possibly safe when taken by mouth, short term. It is usually well tolerated when taken in doses up to 3 mg per day in children and 5 milligrams every day in adolescents.
There is some concern that melatonin might hinder growth during adolescence. While this still has to be verified, melatonin ought to be earmarked for children with a health need.
There isn’t enough evidence to know if melatonin is safe in children when taken by mouth, long-term.
Bleeding disorders: Melatonin might make bleeding worse in people with bleeding disorders.
Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.
High blood pressure: It can raise blood pressure in people that are taking certain medications to control blood pressure.
Seizure disorders: Using it might raise the risk of having a seizure.
Transplant recipients: Melatonin can increase immune function and might interfere with immunosuppressive therapy used by people getting transplants.
Interactions of Melatonin?
Do not take this mixture
- Sedative medicines (CNS depressants) interacts with MELATONIN.
This might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are known as sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative drugs might cause an excessive amount of sleepiness.
Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
Moderate Interaction with Melatonin:
Be cautious with this combination
Birth control pills (Contraceptive medications ) interacts with MELATONIN. Your body makes melatonin. Birth control pills appear to increase how much melatonin the human body gets.
Taking it along with birth control pills might lead to too much melatonin to maintain the body.
Some birth control pills include Ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Caffeine might decrease melatonin levels within the body. Taking melatonin along with caffeine might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.
Fluvoxamine (Luvox) interacts with MELATONIN. Taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) can increase the amount of melatonin that the human body absorbs.
Taking it along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might raise the effects and side effects of melatonin.
Medicines for diabetes (Antidiabetes medication) interacts with MELATONIN. Melatonin might boost blood sugar. Diabetes drugs are utilized to lower blood sugar.
By raising blood glucose, melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medicines. Monitor your blood glucose carefully. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be altered.
Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with MELATONIN. Taking melatonin along with drugs that decrease the immune system might decrease the potency of drugs that decrease the immune system.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), along with others.
Drugs that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with MELATONIN. It might impede blood clotting. Taking it along with medications that also slow clotting might raise the odds of bleeding and bruising.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) interacts with MELATONIN. Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) is used to lower blood pressure. Taking melatonin might decrease the potency of nifedipine GITS for reducing blood pressure.
Sedative medicines (Benzodiazepines) interacts with MELATONIN. It can cause sleepiness and nausea. Medicines that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are known as sedatives.
Taking it along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness. A number of these stimulant drugs include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.
Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) interacts with MELATONIN. The body breaks down melatonin to eliminate it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can raise how fast the body gets rid of melatonin.
Taking melatonin along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin.
Minor Interaction with Melatonin:
Be cautious with this mixture
Flumazenil (Romazicon) interacts with MELATONIN. It is not yet clear why this interaction happens yet. Taking flumazenil (Romazicon) along with melatonin might decrease the efficacy of melatonin supplements.
Dosing of Melatonin:
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
ADULTS BY MOUTH:
For ailments that affect when a man waits and when they’re awake: 0.5 mg to 5 mg of melatonin taken daily before bedtime for up to 6 years has been utilized in blind men and women.
Additionally in blind people, a high dose of 10 mg taken an hour before bedtime for up to 9 weeks is also used. 2-12 mg of melatonin taken at bedtime for up to 4 weeks has been used.
For difficulty falling asleep at a conventional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome): 0.3 to 5 mg of melatonin daily for up to 9 weeks has been used.
For sleep disturbance caused by certain blood pressure medication (beta blocker-induced insomnia): 2.5 mg of melatonin taken daily for up to 4 weeks was used. Single doses of 5 mg of melatonin have also been utilized.
For endometriosis: 10 mg of melatonin daily for 8 weeks has been used.
High blood pressure: 2-3 mg of controlled-release melatonin daily for 4 weeks has been utilized.
2 mg to 3 mg of melatonin before bedtime for up to 29 weeks has been used in many research. Greater doses of up to 12 mg daily have also been used for shorter durations (up to 4 weeks).
For insomnia occurring together with other conditions: 2-12 mg for up to 4 weeks was used. Lower doses also have been used for up to 24 weeks.
Jet lag: 0.5-8 mg of it at bedtime is commonly taken on the day of arrival at the destination, continuing for two to five days. Low doses of 0.5-3 mg are frequently used to prevent the side effects of the higher doses.
Sleeplessness: 3-4 mg of melatonin each evening for up to 6 months has been used.
Reducing anxiety before surgery: 3-10 mg of melatonin taken 60-90 minutes before surgery was used.
For a group of painful conditions that affect the jaw joint and muscle (temporomandibular disorders or TMD): 5 mg of melatonin at bedtime for 4 weeks has been used.
Low levels of platelets from the blood (thrombocytopenia) related to cancer chemotherapy: 20-40 mg of melatonin daily beginning around 7 days before chemotherapy and continuing during chemotherapy cycles continues to be used.
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
For sunburn: A gel containing 0.05percent to 2.5% melatonin, implemented 15 minutes before or around 4 hours after sunlight exposure, has been used. A cream containing 12.5% melatonin, applied to the skin before sun exposure, has been utilized.
UNDER THE TONGUE:
Reducing anxiety before surgery: 5 mg or 0.05-0.2 mg/kg of body fat taken 90-100 minutes before anesthesia was used.
Ailments that affect every time a man waits and when they’re awake: 0.5-4 mg of it daily for up to 6 decades has been used in blind people. 0.5-12 mg of melatonin daily for up to 12 weeks has been used in children and adolescents 3 months to 18 years old.
Difficulty falling asleep at a conventional bedtime (delayed sleep phase syndrome): 1-6 mg of melatonin before bedtime for up to one month was used.
For insomnia occurring together with other conditions: 6-9 mg of melatonin taken before bedtime for 4 weeks, has been used in children with seizures 3-12 years-old.
Reducing stress or anxiety before surgery:
0.05-0.5 mg/kg of body weight was taken before anesthesia in children 1-14 years old.
Ask your friends and loved ones for support. If you’re feeling anxious or depressed, consider joining a support group or seeking counseling. Believe in your ability to take control of the pain…
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